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    MSNBC was second in primetime with 1.69 million total viewers and 417,000 in the demo. This room is for those users who want to meet or talk with those interested in sex chat. Back in the 1940s, the American chemist Willard Libby used this fact to determine the ages of organisms long dead.

    Updating the concept of prebiotics

    Defining what is and is not a prebiotic will have commercial consequences.Scientifically, too, an ongoing debate over the meaning of the term “prebiotics” reflects diverging views of how they may actually confer benefits.Enter the probiotics’ conceptual cousin, prebiotics. One’s gut bacteria composition could benefit from prebiotics, but the mechanisms—not to mention the very definition—of prebiotics remain in question.Image courtesy of Shutterstock/Sebastian Kaulitzki. Although probiotics consist of live microbes, prebiotics are microbe food: substances metabolized by microbes that are not digestible by the host.Despite being a couple of decades behind probiotics in research, prebiotics are potentially key ingredients in the evolving stew of gut influencers.The goal of manipulating whole microbial populations through selective feeding raises practical challenges; as health products, both probiotics and prebiotics exist somewhere in the poorly regulated space between food and drugs.

    Certain gut bacteria are also able to produce compounds similar to human hormones.

    “Interactions between Gut Microbiota and Host Metabolism Predisposing to Obesity and Diabetes.” Annual Review of Medicine 62 (2011): 361–80. Abstract »Sonnenburg, Justin L, Jian Xu, Douglas D Leip, Chien-Huan Chen, Benjamin P Westover, Jeremy Weatherford, Jeremy D Buhler, and Jeffrey I Gordon. 5 (November 2009): 1236–43, doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.28095. Full Text »Jill Parnell and Raylene Reimer, “Weight Loss during Oligofructose Supplementation Is Associated with Decreased Ghrelin and Increased Peptide YY in Overweight and Obese Adults,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 89, no. Full Text »Marc R Bomhof et al., “Combined Effects of Oligofructose and Bifidobacterium Animalis on Gut Microbiota and Glycemia in Obese Rats.,” Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.) 22, no. 6 (June 6, 2005): 1000–1007, doi:10.1038/oby.2005.117. and Dasylirion Spp.,” British Journal of Nutrition 99, no. 10 (October 2006): 814–19, doi:10.1136/adc.2006.098251. Full Text »Consumption of prebiotic inulin enriched with oligofructose in combination with the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium lactis has minor effects on selected immune parameters in polypectomised and colon cancer patients.

    “Think Globally, Act Locally: Regulated Deployment of Polysaccharide Degradation Abilities by our Symbiotic Gut Bacteria.” The FASEB Journal 29, no. Abstract »Musso, Giovanni, Roberto Gambino, and Maurizio Cassader. Abstract »Bridie J Archer et al., “Effect of Fat Replacement by Inulin or Lupin-Kernel Fibre on Sausage Patty Acceptability, Post-Meal Perceptions of Satiety and Food Intake in Men.,” The British Journal of Nutrition 91, no. Full Text »Patrice D Cani et al., “Gut Microbiota Fermentation of Prebiotics Increases Satietogenic and Incretin Gut Peptide Production with Consequences for Appetite Sensation and Glucose Response after a Meal.,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 90, no. Cani et al., “Oligofructose Promotes Satiety in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet: Involvement of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1,” Obesity Research 13, no. Urías-Silvas et al., “Physiological Effects of Dietary Fructans Extracted from Agave Tequilana Gto. 2 (February 2005): 242–49, doi:10.1136/gut.2004.044834. Full Text »Gori, A., Rizzardini, G., Van’t Land, B., Amor, K. 3 (March 2006): 348–55, doi:10.1136/gut.2005.074971. Full Text »G Moro et al., “A Mixture of Prebiotic Oligosaccharides Reduces the Incidence of Atopic Dermatitis during the First Six Months of Age.,” Archives of Disease in Childhood 91, no.

    Faecal SIg A secretion in infants fed on pre‐or probiotic infant formula. Abstract »E Furrie et al., “Synbiotic Therapy (Bifidobacterium longum/Synergy 1) Initiates Resolution of Inflammation in Patients with Active Ulcerative Colitis: A Randomised Controlled Pilot Trial.,” Gut 54, no. 1–2 (January 1, 2002): 13–25, doi:10.1016/S0271-5317(01)00354-2. Abstract »J O Lindsay et al., “Clinical, Microbiological, and Immunological Effects of Fructo-Oligosaccharide in Patients with Crohn’s Disease.,” Gut 55, no.

    Specific prebiotics modulate gut microbiota and immune activation in HAART-naive HIV-infected adults: results of the “COPA” pilot randomized trial. Full Text »Y Guigoz et al., “Effects of Oligosaccharide on the Faecal Flora and Non-Specific Immune System in Elderly People,” Nutrition Research 22, no.

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